Bridelia retusa, Spreng.

Family: Euphorbiaceae

 Telugu Name: Koramaddi


Found in the forests throughout the state. Identified by rigid coriaceous leaves with straight parallel lateral veins and strong spines on the bark of young stems. It is a drought hardy species, produces root­suckers and a good coppicer.


The lateral clusters of small flowers appear from May to July.


Fruit ripens in December to January.

Morphology of the Fruit/Seed:

Fruit is globose, fleshy sweetish drupe, about the size of a pea, purple-black, seated on a hard enlarged calyx. 1 or 2 seeds with fairly thick bony shells. The seeds have brownish papery testa.

Seed Collection and Storage:

Fruits are plucked from the tree in December and heaped to rot for 2 to 3 days and then washed to remove the pulp. Then the pyrene (seed) is dried. Seeds do not store well.

Seed Biology:

No. of seeds per Kg.
Germination percentage
Plant percent
No. of seedlings per Kg. of seed
16,000 to 17,000
9,500 to 10,000


Soaking the seeds in cold water for 24 hours.

Nursery Technique:

Seeds can be sown in bigger polybags (because ofthe fast growth of the tap root) in January and watered regularly. Shade is necessary. Germination commences after 10 to 12 days. The growth of the seedlings is somewhat slow (5 to 8 cm in the first season).