Butea monosperma, (Lamk,) Taub
(Syn. B. Frondosa)
Family: Leguminosae - Papolionioideae
Common Name : Flame of the forest
Telugu Name : Moduga


It is common in mixed dry deciduous forests of Andhra Pradesh, Being in open grass land and scrub forests. Identified by trifoliate leaf and scarlet flowers. Recommended for afforestation in waterlogged areas, tankbund, black-cotton soil, saline-alkaline and badly-drained ground. It is a light demander, drought hardy, good coppicer, and develops root suckers.


February to April, when the tree is leafless.

Pods ripen in April to May.
Morphology of the Fruit/Seed:
Pods 10 to 15 cms by 2 to 5 cms in size; flat, pale yellowish grey when ripe with only 1 seed at the apex. Seeds flat, reinform, 3-4 cms by 2-2.5 cms with thin papery reddish brown testa.
Seed Collection and Storage:
Ripe pods are collected off the trees by stick in May and and stored in sealed tins. Viability is retained up to 1 year easily.
Seed Biology:
No. of pods per Kg.
No. of seeds per Kg.
Germination percentage
Plant percent
No. of seedlings per Kg of seed
Germination period in days
70 to 80
52 to 80
770 to 1180
5 to 16
Not required.
Nursery Technique:

Pod segments containing seeds are sown in polybags in May. Germination commences within a week. Seedlings can be planted in August. Stump planting from one year old seedlings of the primary bed can be done.