Gmelina arborea, Linn.
Family : Verbenaceae
Common Name : Gamhar
Telugu Name : Gummudu, Gumuidu-teku

General :

It is found throughout the state mainly in deciduous forests but never occurs gregariously. Identified by light grey bark, broad-ovate acuminate leaves with cordate base and presence of 2 to 4 shining prominent glands on the under surface of the leaves between the primary nerves. It shows preference for fertile, deep, well drained, sandy loam soils in moist valleys.

Flowering :

The panicle of yellow tubular flowers appear from February to March when the tree is leafless.

Fruiting :
Fruits ripen from the end of April to June.
Morphology of the Fruit / Seed :
Fruit is ovoid, yellow, succulent drupe, 1.8 to 2.5 cms long, having a sweetish pulp and enclosing a hard bony stone. The stone is 1.5 to 1.8 cms long, ovoid, pointed at one end, usually 2-seeded.
Seed collection and Storage :
Ripe brown fruits are collected from April to June from the ground, duly rejecting the green and black ones. Fruits are heaped under or buried in a pit for 4 to 5 days and then washed to remove the pulp. Although seeds can be stored for one year with slight decrease in viability, it is advised to use the fresh seeds.
Seed Biology :
No. of depulped seeds per Kg.
Germination percentage
Plant percent
Period of germination in days
13 to 90
30 to
15 to 21
Pretreatment :
Pretreatment of seeds not necessary. Pre-germination in damp sand is sometimes practised.
Nursery Technique :
Seed is dibbled to a depth of 2 cms in the soil of polybags in June to July. Considerable amount of heat and moisture is needed to stimulate the germination and so the beds are covered with a layer of hay. The growth of the taproot is slow.