Terminalia alata, Heyne,
(Syn. T. tomentosa)
Family : Combretaceae
Common Name : Laurel
Telugu Name : Nalla Maddi

General :

It is most common and most widely distributed. Identified by crocodile skin bark, red blaze and stick-like glands at the base on the backside of the leaf. Development of the tree is best on deep, rich alluvial soils but it avoids sandy soil. Silviculturally it is regarded as suitable for afforesting clayey soils.

Flowering :

The panicled spikes of small whitish flowers appear in May to June.

Fruiting :
Fruits ripen from February to April.
Morphology of the Fruit / Seed :
Fruit is a indehiscent drupe, 3.5 to 5.0 by 1.3 to 2.5 cms in size with 5 coriaceous wings and marked with numerous horizontal lines running from axis to the edges which are thin and irregularly crenulate. Fruits turn brown when ripe.
Seed Collection and Storage :
The fruits are collected by lopping and branches. The best time for the collection of ripe fruits is just after the tree becomes leafless. The fruits are dried in sun for 3 to 4 days are stored in gunny bags. Viability remains for one year.
Seed Biology :
No. of seeds per Kg.
Germination percentage
Plant percent
Time taken for germination in days
No. of seedlings per Kg. of seed
36 to 70
40 to 45
15 to 30
240 to 250
Pretreatment :
Seeds are sometimes heaped together and watered daily; when the seeds begin to sprout, they are removed and sown. The fruits are soaked in cold water for 48 hours.
Nursery Technique :

Treated seeds are dibbled in the polybags in March-April with top end down-ward at a depth equal to the diameter of the seed. The beds should not be shaded till germination begins, and then should be shaded immediately after germination.