Terminalia arjuna, Bedd.

Family: Combretaceae


Telugu Name :Tella maddi, Yerumaddi

General :

Distributed throughout Andhra Pradesh, frequenting the banks of the water courses. Identified by thick grey smooth bark, exfoliating in large thin irregular sheets and buttressed trunk. It thrives best on loose moist, fertile alluvial loams and light deep sandy soils, often overlying more or less imprevious rock. The soil should have ample water supplies but should normally be well-drained. The soil under this tree becomes rich in calcium as the leaves are rich in this element.


Flowering :

The panicled spikes of white flowers appear from April to July.

Fruiting :

Fruits ripen from follwing February to May

Morphology of the Fruit/Seed :

Fruit is drupe, 2.5 cms long, ovate, thick with 5 rigid, longitudinal wing, 0.6 cm broad, the fruit is often notched near the top, marked with oblique upward curving striations.

Seed Collection and Storage :

Ripe fruits are collected in March either by lopping the branches or from the ground previously swept clean. The seeds are viable for at least one year when stored in sealed tins.

Seed Biology :

No. of fruits per Kg.

Germination percentage (Untreated seeds)

Germination percentage (Treated seeds)

Plant percent

No. of seedlings per Kg. of seed

175 to 1,450

50 to 60


35 to 50

60 to 255


Soak the seeds in cool water for 48 hours; or cover the seeds with boiling water, allow to cool and soak for 24 hours.

Nursery Technique :

The pretreated fruits are put in polythene bags in April with half of the fruit above the soil. The germination commence in 8 to 12 days and take about 50 days to complete. The use of pregerminated seeds is preferred to save time and ensure uniform germination. The seedlings are sensitive to drought both at the germination stage and subsequently.